Structuring Your Speech
Structure is so important in your presentation that TWO of the ASSESSMENT CRITERIA involve the inclusion and sequence of certain things.

Fully developed ideas are seen in the way related statements, evidence and comments are combined. They are like paragraphs in a formal essay and they do present material COHERENTLY!!

There is also the overall development to think about: An introduction neatly linked to a string of related ideas which is neatly linked to a conclusion.

Eg. Beginning Middle End
Eg. Or you can show a change in thinking, justified by the Middle, between the Beginning and the Eng.
Eg. You could move from uncertainty to certainty.
Eg. You could move from certainty to uncertainty.

TAKE CHARGE OF YOUR AUDIENCE
Your intro must grab them. Use a scenario or rhetorical questions. Emotive language or personal pronouns to get the audience hooked.

Set the tone: challenging, mocking, self-mocking, business-like, sincere, caring.

LEADING THE WAY.
Also part of your introduction. This sign posts the listeners what points you are going to explore. [STRUCTURE!]

MIDDLES
Stick to Statement Explanation Examples

Or Story plus comment (judgement conclusion)

Or Showing/Demonstrating and explanation.

LOOK BACK /conclusion
Get the audience to reflect on your terrific points.
Make them think about what’s to be done or learned as a result of their new knowledge courtesy of you.

FAMOUS LAST WORDS
End on a strong sentence; a personal note, a question, an imperative [command] a quote. End with some lateral thinking.

Writing Techniques for Oral Presentations

Alliteration – works in the same way as rhyme. It’s more subtle and can suit a more serious tone.

Example: Sweet sixteen; macho man; lat, loneliest, loveliest.

Analogy – Explains a new idea by comparing it to something more familiar.

Example: The way electrons move around the nucleus is like the way the planets orbit around the sun.

Antithesis: - is a contrast stated in phrases with parallel structure (same kinds of words in same order).

Example: I marry for love; I divorce for money. The idea is neatly and memorably packaged.

Exclamations - Communicate your emotion and give a spontaneous look to a prepared speech.

Example: In two years I will be eligible for the unemployment benefit. Yes! That’s my career sorted!

First Person Language and Personal Pronouns– Is [I] statements for personal interest and [we] statements to make the audience feel included.

Example: One thing I have learned the hard way: if we don’t act together on this, we stand no chance.

Hyperbole – Is a kind of exaggeration which makes its impact by being extreme.

Example: He was only knee-high to a grasshopper. (this particular example is also an example of cliché).

Imperatives – Challenge the audience because you are telling them what to do. Imperatives are COMMANDS.

Example: Think about how far we’ve come since students had to do their school work on a piece of slate.
Irony – Creates interest in a speech because the audience knows you mean the opposite of what you are saying. It can create humour.

Example: I really love tests; they are the highlights of the week. When I leave school my life will be over.

Listing – Gives the impression of a great deal of knowledge or a great weight of evidence.

Example: What can we do to stop deaths like these: Coral Burrows, Chris and Cru Kahui, Nia Glassie?

Proverbs/Cliches – Are familiar, easy-to-understand sayings. They seem wise just because they have been around for ages.

Example: So what if she’s older than me, I can still ask her out: Faint heart never won fair lady, as they say.

Quotation – Appeals because it connects with your listeners’ memories. Quotations seem wise and true.

Example: “At the going down of the sun, and in the morning, we will remember them.”

Repetition – Is good for emphasis and for linking ideas. Writing the same words again looks bad on the printed page but, in a speech the impact of your words is reduced because your body language and voice techniques can compete with them or vary them. Check how the repetition in your speech sounds rather than how it looks.

Example: Piercings are cool. The pain is cool. The infections are cool. Snagging them and tearing your flesh is cool. (this is also an example of emotive language and irony)

Rhetorical Questions – Create the illusion of two-way communication with your audience. Asking the questions makes the audience think about what the answer might be – and you of course have just made, or will immediately make, the answer obvious.

Example: Why do most immigrants to New Zealand decide to live in Australia?

Rhyme – Works well in all spoken language situations to highlight words and help people remember them.

Example: Barmy army, flower power, you snooze, you lose.

Second-person Language – Is direct address to the audience. Calling them you makes them feel involved.

Example: You are going to hear something that can change your lives. (this is an example of the use of personal pronouns as well).

Triad – A set of three words or phrases making a punchy summary of a complex group of ideas.

Example: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity (revolutionary slogan); For God, for king and for country (war song).


Using Your Body during Speeches

Stance - Look confident and face your audience.

Cue Cards - Don’t make them too big or too small (hard to read).

Gesture and Movement – Strike poses and make arm and hard movements to add variety and impact to your performance. They can save long explanations and can be dramatic as well as clear. Become a moving object. This is exactly what you do when you are talking to a friend.

It is a good idea to annotate your speech with body, hand movement ideas.

Facial expressions – These will naturally be appropriate to what you are saying. If you haven’t practised your speech enough the audience will be able to tell by the look on your face (searching of memory banks).

It is a good idea to annotate your speech with facial expressions: happy, cheeky etc.

Eye contact – Looking over your audiences’ heads is better than looking at your notes.

Before you are about to launch into a new point make sure that you have looked up at the back of the room or at a different part of the room before commencing.

Look away as soon as you see a person’s eyes; you have made contact.
Look into another area of the audience for your next contact; this makes the whole audience feel involved.
Practise looking up for eye-contact when you are rehearsing your speech.


Voice techniques in speeches

You need to understand and practise ways of varying your voice – this is one of the requirements for a pass. Here are the things your marker will listen for and some ideas on how to do them.

Beware of the full-stop drop
In all normal speaking we drop our volume and intonation as we get to the end of a sentence. If you drop too far, the audience will struggle to hear the last few words. This is no good because the beginnings and ends of sentences are the most effective places in your speech!

Enunciation
Sound your words, each word, carefully.

Pace
The speed you speak at. The first idea is that you probably need to work at slowing down: everyone wants to race through and “get it over and done with!” This will undersell your ideas and you might end up going under time.

Otherwise use change in pace to
a) add excitement - fast pace for exciting story-telling
b) slow down for serious messages or difficult or sad messages.

Pause
A key factor in controlling pace. We automatically pause for a full stop. When you have said something amazing, when you’ve asked a rhetorical question, when you have touched on a tender emotion, count (silently) to three to give your audience time to think and feel before you distract them with your next idea. GIVE THEM TIME TO TAKE IN YOUR WONDERFUL MESSAGES!

Stress
Variation of volume. Instead of raising the volume for a whole sentence, stress involves raising it for a single word in a sentence. It is a way of signalling something important, using sound instead of italics or CAPITALS.

Tone
Tone is just feeling – what mood or emotion you feel when you think about your subject. It adds impact to your words. Tone can be funny, exciting, teasing, cheeky, angry, serious and pitiful. Plan for a variety of tones in your speech.

Volume
Your top priority is to be heard; it’s okay to be too loud but it’s fatal to be too soft. If you look at the back row of the audience and speak loudly enough for the, then everyone in the room will hear. As for variation, adjust the volume to the mood of what you are saying: up for excitement and anger, down for thoughtfulness and regret.